A note about wax sculpture
Translated by Ogawa Shusuke

My principle for art and communication

   While I belonged to art university in the years 1984-1988, contemporary arts were popular. In those days, many artists tried to have good reputation just by calling their works “conceptual” by themselves, even if their quality were poor. Just calling artists’ works as “installation” always “guaranteed” their value, even if such works had insufficient contents. For example, works covered with stones, pieces of driftwood, and sloppy-molded arms and legs. I doubted the trend that using terms of contemporary always “guaranteed” value of artists’ works, and I couldn’t be interested with such trend. Probably for the “bubble economy”, The word “アート”(“Art” in Japanese katakana, but it doesn’t always mean fine art) was popular among TV and magazines in those days. However, what I wanted to do was sculpture, not “アート” in katakana, and not contemporary arts which put an emphasis on theories, not on qualities. I believed what can compete with “literal culture” was “handwork”. Even now I have this principle as a basis.
    “Look at, listen to, read unfamiliar things as many as possible”- This is what I always keep in mind. In addition, “Communicate with strangers as many as possible”- it is also what I keep in mind. I believe art is to create things by reconstructing ideas from artists’ dairy life, which are influenced by what artists have looked at, have listened to, and have read.
    About 10 years before, I heard a story from one of my friends: An author of a Gekiga comic(comic with a realistic narrative) advised his students, ”Your comics only tell the fact you draw comics just because you have been influenced by other author’s comics. You can’t incorporate comics unless you find out something from your everyday experiences.” As I sympathized with his opinion, It seemed that I also found out the reason why I had an allergy to contemporary arts. That was because I couldn’t help feeling artists around my age created their contemporary art works just because they had been influenced by other artists’ contemporary art works. Although now I can recognize there had been not only such kind of works. Not only about creating works of art, I believe an ideal way of communication is a circulation which is composed with sublimating communications which I have experienced into my works of art, and with outputting communications through my works of art.

The beginning of creating wax sculptures

    I was invited to take part in a group exhibition after more than two years since I had graduated the department of sculpture in the art university. In those days I thought if I could create my wax sculptures by applying my technique, which was acquired by dealing with wax figures every day in C.P.A.co.LTD. The company I was working for, which was introduced by one of my friends. There had been prejudice about sculpture owing to education taught by art universities, that it is better to create sculptures from materials which are hard and anti-deterioration, and that the most important element about sculptures is shape, even if treatment of surface and coloration are also important, and that it is better to create bigger works. It is more important for sculptors to secure space for creating than to find materials or to make vacant time. It was difficult for me to rent a workshop with small amount of my salary, so I almost gave up continuing creating sculptures like other sculptors.
    Smells which occurs while dealing with wax are not strong like ones smelled while dealing with resin or FRP. Works about wax also don’t make big noise because it can be formed by spatula. It seemed that I could create sculptures just by preparing gas range and table, even if my apartment is small. I found out generally that wax was soft, enabled me to transplant hair on it, and enabled me to reduce texture of the materials by obscuring outline, and I also found out that even if sculptures were  small, wax enabled me to reduce sense of scale of them by increasing density, because  treatment of surface and coloration extremely influence beholders’ sense of sight for shapes in the case of wax sculptures. All of these were completely opposite to notion about sculpture which I had been taught in art university. I found out my notions about sculptures were just prejudices, and started creating works for group exhibition. It was spring in 1990, at the kitchen of my apartment built from wood.

”Bijutsu-Techo” of pornographic magazines

    I brought photos of my works to editorial department of the magazine “S&M Sniper”. I think it was strange choice for artist. I had easygoing way of thinking that it was easy for me to show photos of my works in printed matter rather than to exhibit to my works, because I was more familiar with printed matters such as magazines and books than galleries. It was great pleasure for me to be introduced my works in ”S&M Sniper”, because I regarded it as” Bijutsu-Techo”(One of the most famous and authoritative magazines about fine arts) of pornographic magazines for its magnificent lineup of artists in articles, and for its high-quality design. However, such way of publishing not only caused some response, but also caused bigger misunderstanding than the response at the same time. My works got a great deal of attention, but they were interpreted as “Bizarre objet d’ art intending eroticism and grotesqueness”, and unexpectedly they are widely interpreted in such point of view. I hardly have interest in “grotesqueness” or “bizarreness”. It is true that my works look like “sexual”, but in my opinion shapes of them are results caused by adding and deducting many elements from shapes which I had found in my dairy life, and the way of creating is just a part of the whole. I had always irritated by hardship to convey such nuance.
    “Eroticism” is extremely difficult theme. In the past I had tried to express “Crude eroticism”, but at last I had aborted to express it in the stage of prototype, and the work wasn’t accomplished. Somehow intention to express “erotic” always leads my works to be “grotesque”, and intention to express “grotesque” always leads my works to be “vulgar”. I suppose people who have drawn picture, created image, and written writing also have such experience, that artists often lose their ways when they try to “aim at” something.
    Before and after the publication in “S&M Sniper”, some photographers had interest in my works, and took photos of them. They were creative works of photographers rather than records of my works, and many of them were taken as “close-up photos of private parts”. Looking back now, I made light of the effect caused by direction and angle then, because I hadn’t stick to photographs. Still, I thought beholders would imagine the space as I expected if I explained ”This work is assumed to be located in quite large space”, but my works weren’t regarded in such way. People who are conversant with progressive rock would understand such miscommunication- it’s like a sense of incongruity which was occurred when 25-minutes’ A-side of Mike Oldfield’s suite “Tubular Bells” edited into size of single record, and was transformed to “Theme of the Exorcist”.

Frank Zappa and a new work

    Soon after I resigned from the wax figure company which I had worked for four years, I heard there was a wax figure of Frank Zappa in Tokyo Tower, so I visited Wax Museum there in 1992.
    Frank Zappa is special for me, who buy records cutting down whose food expenses. He confronts audiences with what he has skewed with his extreme technique, from psychedelic rock, blues, jazz, classic, contemporary music and comic song, combined with satire to politics and with sexual words. Numbers of his albums have good quality, and I have learned “artistic point of view” from various music including Zappa rather than fine arts.
    Doubting authenticity of there being wax figure of him in Tokyo Tower, wax sculpture of whom is not so popular among ordinary people, I found it was actually displayed there stately. However, I felt it was poorly made a little, so after a few days I called the museum. “The other day, I visited your museum, and found wax figure of Frank Zappa. I had worked for the company dealing with wax figure till last year, and I call you whether I could improve the figure. The actual Frank Zappa has darker skin, has mono-brow, has a little awry nose, has less razor stubble, and has a mole on his left cheek. However, they are rather details, and the figure needs to be reshaped include whole framework, and its hair needs to be waved…” Later, I visited the museum again. The president of the museum was deeply absorbed in rock music, and I was surprised to hear he had ordered the figure of Frank Zappa from the company abroad because he was a big fan of him, too. As an examination for technical skill, I repaired some wax figure, and after 2 or 3 months I started long-awaited remaking of the figure of Frank Zappa.
    Later, Frank Zappa’s eldest son, Dweezil Zappa came to Japan as a tour guitarist of a certain Japanese musician, but he got serious homesick. The staff of the tour were concerned about him, and they took him out to visit wax museum, and let him see wax figure of his father. Dweezil was sounded with tears in his eyes, for the quality of the figure, and he was encouraged starting to think he was being kept an eye on by his father, and he succeeded in completing whole tour. It was a joyful story for me, who loves music and Zappa.
    At the beginning of the work, I couldn’t imagine that I was going to earn my living for 18 years by reshaping wax figures. In those days, I worked for museum, and the time I can spare from my duties I created my own wax sculptures. At the time, I tried to improve my technique by reshaping wax figures of the museum, and tried to sublimate the technique into wax sculptures, and the both process were required for me.

Condensing movements

    Comparing creating works to writing “novels”, the work making sculptures imitate actual people is also compared to “translating”.   
    Then, Reshaping wax figures is a work which makes figures imitate the original model. It may be more difficult work than creating figures from the beginning. For example, though I feel eyes of figures are smaller than those of the model, opening eyes of figures widely doesn’t always make figures look similar with the original model, because in some of such cases the real problem of the figures is the difference of size of frameworks in comparison with the original model, rather than the difference of size of eyes. Thus, like solving a puzzle spending many months, I analyze the face of the model accurately within less than a millimeter, in comparison with numbers of materials. However, reproducing photographic materials faithfully makes figures look similar with photographs, but doesn’t make figures look similar with the original model. This is what is interesting and difficult dealing with wax figures.
    Let me investigate what is “imitating original models”.
    For extreme example, Sammy Davis Jr.’s chin is quite long, but it doesn’t project ahead so much. However, owing to commercials and so on, it start to project ahead recklessly and it starts to “grow” in people’s memories.
    There are numbers of Marilyn Monroe’s photograph collections, but if I look for “Monroe’s photograph with Monroe’s exact face” from a wax figure’s viewpoint, I can find only five or six such photographs in ten photograph collections. If I try to choose photographs which enable me to make figures “look like” Marilyn Monroe herself from those five or six photographs, there are only one or two lefts.  The other photographs are “Monroe’s photographs without Monroe’s exact faces”. From wax figure’s point of view, “good photograph” is completely different from “good material”.
    “Designing wax figures to imitate original models” means “designing wax figures to imitate beholders’ public images of the models”, by condensing life of the model and affection of the fans to the model. It has some similarity with a work in a lecture of making clay of fowls and rabbits in a preparatory school of art, that students are ordered to make sure of THE MOMENT of movement which animals provoke their features at their best. However, unlike dealing with animals, what we have to take care when dealing with actual people are, “How to emphasize and deform the model naturally”. In case of Sammy Davis Jr., what we have to take care is “How to make his chin look long, by projecting his chin ahead as little as possible.”

Similarities between contemporary art and wax figures

    Photographs of Marilyn Monroe showed me more. I couldn’t find good material of her nevertheless I had looked for it hard, and I started to be confused so I decided to ask about it from many people. Finally I realized the portrait of Monroe which people of a generation who don’t have much intensity for Monroe’s movies picture is the works of silk screen, made by Andy Warhol. In addition, there was not any photograph which looks similar with the work of Andy Warhol, nevertheless I really had looked for one. I found out “Images of Marilyn Monroe which people HAD pictured in their mind” were newly “created” in the work of Andy Warhol, an contemporary artist who symbolizes USA in a sense, from the same point of view as that of wax figure when looking for material to create wax figure. Portraits of Marilyn Monroe which were created in such way by Warhol were upgraded to “Images of Marilyn Monroe which people NOW picture in their mind”, and were finally started to be established in people’s mind.
    From this consideration, The distance between contemporary art and wax figures gets a little closer to each other in my mind. There is a term “Increasing layers” in a circle of contemporary art. A layer “Monroe as symbol” from viewpoint of contemporary art, and a layer “Monroe people picture in their mind rather than Monroe herself” as a materials for creating wax figures, intersected at that time. Both numbers of ideas for creating works of art and numbers of photographic materials for creating wax figures are “layers”. Both are not always appropriate even if their numbers are vast. Pile up choicest “layers”, add consideration by artists themselves, and finally skewer objects by “condensing movement”, then at last works of art or wax figures which have persuasiveness are completed.

A sense of incongruity about my exhibition before

    I have exhibited my works of art a little several times when I had spare moment during my work, but in those exhibitions I didn’t take care about “how to display my works”, as I didn’t take care about photographs.
    In small gallery, ways of display are very limited. Displaying works on the wall has the advantage of not occupying space and of preventing works from accidents caused by being bumped by beholders, but has the disadvantage of causing difficulty for beholders to appreciate the back and the wall side of the works. Of course, three-dimensional works are created assuming beholders’ 360-degree views, and also assuming beholders’ views looking up works from the floor. However, displaying works on the wall gets rid of some of such views.
    In addition, incandescent pin spot lights are often chosen for lightning of galleries, and only very few galleries have fluorescent lights covering all of the spaces. Coloring of wax sculptures is very special. First of all, dissolve coloring materials into wax itself to color it the color of the ground, then wipe it by brush with small amount of coloring materials, and repeat wiping again and again changing colors slightly.  It is impregnation rather than painting. After the process, re-coat wax with very small amount of coloring materials by tapping at it with brush, or splash thin-dissolved coloring materials by brush. Finally, wax sculptures are colored with a way which makes their colors transparent from those of the surfaces to colors of the ground of wax in stage, so that incandescent pin spot lights get rid of some of such colors for too much intensity of such lights. In such lights, shapes of wax sculptures look simple in a bad way, and shadows of them become darker against my will as a result.
    Wax sculptures are set off most in flat lights of fluorescent lights. A psychiatrist, Saitoh Tamaki wrote in his book, “ If world was a dream in Saturday night”(Kadokawa Shoten co.LTD.), ‘Point source of light’, such as incandescent lights, are, so to speak, like ‘God’s point of view’ in monotheism.” “On the other hand, ‘typical Japanese lights’ are often emitted from whole surface, not from one exact point. Like lanterns, lamps with paper shades, and shojis, we have partiality to ‘surface source of light’.” Looking back now, the reason why I had had unapproachable impression about some kind of galleries and works of contemporary art might be also because I had felt oppressiveness from their monotheistic intrusiveness. Narrow-minded judgement, like judging everything from western point of view, or obeying opinions which oppose western point of view without question, may break circulation of communication not only about fine arts.

“Things which I don’t know”

    Although I hadn’t been interested in contemporary art, I have been a fan of Murakami Takashi since before. I could sympathize with his works in my own way, because his works didn’t require too much knowledge about contemporary art to appreciate.   From my selfish interpretation, Mr. Murakami is “A man who produces new discovery by undertaking something strategically”, and “ A man who improves his technique in order to achieve his product,” and “A man who belongs to the center of art circles, but who doesn’t settle down there”, rather than a contemporary artist. Thus, I think he is “A man who can’t be understood easily by ordinary people”. Writing about him in such way, I feel he has many common points with Frank Zappa.
    From my another selfish interpretation, I think he is “ A man who produces difficult things in simple way”. There are many people who produce simple things in difficult way, but there are only a few people who produce difficult things in simple way. Considering Mr. Murakami’s trend, I start to think “to make things simple is not to concern about being misunderstood by others”.  I have read his books, “Theories about starting a business in art”(2006/Gentosha Literary Publication), “Theories about conflict in art”(2010/Gentosha Literary Publication) many times, and I always have adopted them as my guiding principles when I almost lose heart.
    In 2008, I have read Koyama Tomio’s book, “How much is the painting?”(Kodansha co.LTD.). Since then, I had never read books about contemporary art with much interest as I read these books, and I found myself I had read about 10 books about art. Although I had always kept in my mind the principle “Look at, listen to, read unfamiliar things as many as possible”, It took 20 years from my graduation for university to “arrive at” contemporary art, which is one of the “Things which I don’t know”.
    Once I was interested in contemporary art, I came to be able to appreciate music which I had had in LP or CD for a long time but had avoided because it had seemed to be difficult, by interpreting them as “Doesn’t this music have the same idea as ‘Mono-ha’ in contemporary art?” “Isn’t this part of noise just noise, but as collage in two-dimensional work of art?” Since before, I had liked to read texts of bands which were said to be difficult to understand, so I could interpret books about contemporary art in my own way. Correlated with such interpretations about music, I came to be able to appreciate works of contemporary art by interpreting them as “Doesn’t this work of art have the same concept as the album?” “Aren’t these two things are same? The structure of this work of art which makes two things concurrent, and the structure of that song” I also had principle to “Turning music into shapes”, so I felt I could achieve it a little. Movies, photographs, and literatures, which had been in pieces in my mind, were started to be organized by interpreting them through a filter of contemporary art.

“Hands for job” and “Hands for creation”- from “close shot” to “long shot”

    Having been absorbed by charm of wax figures, I had dealt with 122 wax figures, but I resigned from the wax museum in Tokyo Tower in 2009, and restarted creating my works of art to make use of my technique since then. I started with new determination, but I couldn’t be satisfied with quality of the work. It doesn’t mean “I had lost my ability for creating my works”, but it does mean “I had taken to complete my works”. Owing to longtime job with being pressed for time, I had come to make effort to deliver sculptures before deadlines. As a result, even in a case I was not being pressed for time, I couldn’t help giving priority to complete my works. Although it was unexpected affair to me, my hands become “hands for job”, not “hands for creation”. The habit I had taken to for a long time haven’t been gone easily, and my hands move unconsciously in a certain rule. I always need time for creating my works, so speeding up seems to be good for me, but it doesn’t make sense unless I am satisfied with qualities of the works. For a while, I “kept on completing my works getting rid of the habit I had taken to complete my works”, and it finally took about two years to get rid of such habit.
    Sometimes I had completed my wax figures rapidly with “close shot” view when I had tried to complete them in certain period. In a process trying to get rid of such habit, I found myself facing my works with “long shot” view unconsciously. At the early stage, I had created some sculptures which had been intended to be appreciated from “close shot” view, and area for exhibiting them had been intended to be between six-mat to eight-mat, but thinking of my works have completed these years, I found myself intending larger area for exhibition.
    In “Bessatsu Taiyou: Shunga 2”(Heibonsha co.LTD.), it is said “ In contrast with Suzuki Harunobu’s ‘long shot’ view, which describes not only figures of a man and a woman but also describes their surroundings, Katsushika Hokusai’s view is ‘close shot’ view, which describes only intertwinement of two bodies- those of a man and a woman”. It is somewhat shame to cite two great painters as examples, but I found myself my view was being converted from “close shot” view like Hokusai to “long shot” view, which puts on emphasis on space more, like Harunobu.

Process of creating wax sculpture and “ element of noise”

    I think placing sculpture in certain space is already an installation art. What is important at the time is “texture” of works. If sculptors didn’t care much about “texture”, they couldn’t “control whole space” or “bring about harmony with space”. The “texture” which arises from method of creating and coloring wax sculptures is rather special.
    Briefly, I illustrate process of creating wax sculpture: first, make prototype from clay, and mold it with silicone. Then, pour melted wax into the mold and remove wax when it become hard. Up to this point, it is general technique which is also written in books about some kind of molded objects or special effects makeup. Later, finish the surface with spatula, and what I take care about at the time is “how to leave element of noise on the surface of wax”. When pouring wax, sometimes air bubbles rise, unevenness is born owing to subtle warp of mold of silicone, and sometimes impurities appear on surface. Not getting rid of those “element of noise” totally, and taking care about not completing my works too much with “hands for job”, adjust the shape carefully in the end.
    Then, engrave wrinkles on the surface of adjusted wax. There are some variations between them, as ones which are so shallowly engraved that beholders can’t notice them unless they come near, and on the other hand, as ones which are so deeply engraved that beholders can notice them even if they were far from sculptures, and such variations are determined by the shape of sculptures or directions for later makeup. When we observe fine wrinkles of human, we may find they intersect reticulately. Nevertheless it is not good for sculptures to be engraved such wrinkles, aiming at reality. As with the case of wax figures, if sculptors engrave such wrinkles, some kind of lights sometimes make beholders catch sight of wrinkles as first visual information, and such lights sometimes disturb beholders from looking at wax figures themselves. I mean, it is a state of “excess of noise”. Engraving wrinkles are important process to lead adjusted surface to makeup in the next stage. Wrinkles help paints to match with wax, and have a role to tune “element of noise” exactly in the last stage of adjusting shapes. Sometimes I engrave improbable and unnatural wrinkles as “element of noise”.

State of “dynamic equilibrium” and “texture”

    Giving a supplementary explanation about makeup, I always take care about “diffusing elements of noise on the surface of wax” in it. Just diffusing them at random makes sculpture state of “excess of noise”, so I color sculptures according to shapes and parts of them.
    A biologist, Fukuoka Shin-ichi said in a talk with a novelist, Kawakami Mieko, “Actually, living things don’t have fixed ‘outline’. By increasing resolution, we can just find molecules going in and out at breakneck speed on the surface of skin. The reason why computer animations look unnatural even if they are made realistic is because they have sundered outline. Thus, to make computer animations more realistic, it is necessary to invent new processing which generates microscopic movement of going in and out at the interface, in other words, dynamic equilibrium at the interface.”
    Up to now, I have appreciated sculptures and dolls which are called “realistic”. For example, works of sculptures which are directly molded from human bodies, works by realistic doll artists, art objects created by artists of special effects makeup, RealDolls, and realistic mannequins. Indeed those works were realistic, but they were not entire satisfactory to me. I couldn’t sense state of “dynamic equilibrium”. It seemed that they insisted “In order to make texture on the sculpture, artists need to engrave wrinkles which intersect reticulately, and cover surface by realistic flesh color.” The more artists pile up addition, The more balance of “dynamic equilibrium” collapses.
    “Molecules” or “microscopic movement of going in and out at the interface of computer animations” are not in my field, but what I would like to express by “texture” of wax sculpture is the state of “dynamic equilibrium”. Some of Ikiningyos by Matsumoto Kisaburo and some of wax sculptures made by Madame Tussauds caused me sense of “dynamic equilibrium”.

Hair transplant and Itoh Seiu

    People often ask me why I transplant hairs to sculptures. This is because I would like to “put play in shape”. Transplanting hairs also have an effect to “reduce texture of the material by obscuring outline”, as I wrote in the beginning of this note. Works with long-hair transplant changes their arrangement every time I exhibit them, and they can never be same. I would like to incorporate uncertain “element of noise” more by transplanting hairs.
    There was an artist whose name is Itoh Seiu, who was called “illusory painter of torture sex”. Seiu is famous for paintings of scenes of Japanese sexual bondage, and he had pursued realism of paintings of torture sex so much that he had took photographs of his pregnant wife, hanged upside down with straw ropes over three hours in a snowy day. Although paintings of torture sex are thought to represent Seiu, he was actually ”fetishist of hairs” rather than that of Japanese sexual bondage, and he was moved by state of breaking of beautifully-coiffured Shimada-mage (pompadour-like hair style, popular with unmarried women in Edo period), which was caused by Japanese sexual bondage or torture.
    I really sympathize with his feelings. However, except part of “Japanese sexual bondage or torture”. Hairs don’t have fixed forms, and they are strange objects, and they may turn into a material with mass by bundling long ones about 50 centimeters, and by being transplanted in high density. By spreading it fanwise, it becomes a plane, and by spreading it more, it becomes numbers of hairs which are independent from each other. In the case of hair transplant in such a low density that skin of sculptures can be seen, long hairs are organized gently towards tips of the hairs, and the roots of them look mixed color, which is from color of skin and that of hairs. On the other hand, in the case of hair transplant with short hairs about 1 to 5 centimeters, outlines of shapes become dim, and beholders can see dots of pores by looking at them at close range, and it causes different kind of “element of noise” to sculptures.
    Getting what I have written in shape, after the process of wax, wrinkles and makeup, the last process, adding ”element of noise”, is hair transplant. Beholders tend to think I transplant hairs to all of my works, but I don’t transplant them at all if the work is well-balanced in the state of wax itself. In the state of “dynamic equilibrium”, the last counterbalances to be added are “hairs”.

”It is a speaker, and also a microphone”

    Leaving out about materials, in my opinion to create sculptures is to express “relationship between object and ground”. If “relationship between object and ground” wasn’t expressed well, “texture” , “element of noise” and “dynamic equilibrium” couldn’t be realized.
    And if someone asks what work of wax sculpture is, I would answer, although it is abstract, “it is a speaker, and also a microphone”. Having written “Turning sound into shape” before, I have certain images for wax sculptures, the image which produces sound all the time as a speaker, and on the other hand, the image which picks up sound around them all the time as a microphone. “Sound” is both “music” and “noise”. Because “It is a speaker, and also a microphone”, I really eager to avoid exhibiting each works closely. Because it will make bad mixture or howling.

”A dance in stationary time”

    Way of exhibition I want to realize is “a dance in stationary time”. Generally, space of theater has invisible wall between the stage and the seats, but there are some cases in theaters of experimental dance or play that there are no stage or seat there, and audiences can appreciate them from wherever they would like to be. Imagine such way of appreciation. Beholders can obey to vague route indicated, or appreciate sculptures in the order according to their preference. They can appreciate sculptures going around them, or also can appreciate groveling near them.
    Dance is an expression which confines time in movement, and at the same time confines movement in time. Poses stand up whenever we take photographs of it. It means “condensing movements”. I suppose space for exhibition of works of wax sculptures is in the state of “dynamic equilibrium”, where “actors” called works become stationary during their activities of life, and their movements are condensed. In the space, beholders are also encouraged to take part there as “movement” or “time”.

”Rhythm of sight”

    A Japanese critic and playwright, Fukuda Tsuneari wrote in “What is art?”(Chuokoron-Shinsha co.LTD.), “words are style of existence of mind, and are mind itself. However, they are also medium which provides our breathing and rhythm of the pulse as tones of voice, and they also have many images which stimulate sight.” “Our sight can’t exist without hearing, and our hearing can’t exist without sight.” “Not only words, but also all kind of movements as colors, lines, and musical interval, require participation of our whole existence.”
    The quotation above is a consideration about “words” and “rhythm” written in 1950. “Words” draw out “rhythm” by being connected with “hearing” like “breathing” or “pulse” through “tone of voice”. “Rhythm” is elicited by “words”, and “sight” and “hearing” are also stimulated. In addition, but for “participation of our whole existence”, we can’t access “words”, “colors”, “lines” and “musical intervals”. I really sympathized the consideration which insists everything is connected with each other and everything is going around.
    Wax sculptures are works which have sense of rhythm. It is “rhythm of sight”. I have observed beholders in my exhibitions for a long time. Their ways of appreciation also have certain “rhythm of sight”.
    At first, they come into space of exhibition with sour faces, to be correct, with very serious faces. They look around the space unhurriedly with such faces, and they happen to be in focus of one work, and they changes their face as if they were startled. Their eyes start to open widely. With very slow and meek steps, they walk towards the work which they happen to be in focus of. About 30 centimeters from it, their eyes start to open more widely, and they stand still for a short while, and their number of blinks decreases. There are some beholders who bring their face close to works about few centimeters, and on the other hand, there are those who start to walk around the work slowly to appreciate it from other angle, with their postures kept unnatural half-sitting. After a while, they start to relax a little, and I can find difference between individuals more. One appreciating work from distance, another looking up work lying on the floor, the other repeating going towards and leaving the work rhythmically… and so on. There are also some beholders who repeat chains of movements again. After the repeat, one turns to look sour as he or she did at first, another turns to smile, the other starts to go into deep thought, “Mmm…”.
    Beholder’s these “rhythm of sight” are very similar to movement of actors of “Butoh”. Probably beholders do such movements involuntarily, and they wouldn’t remember how strange they have moved. There are “pleasures which involved with movements of bodies rather than brains” , in many kind of “pleasures”. Please appreciate my works with beholders’ individual principles for “pleasures”. Of course, there are also “pleasures which involved with brains rather than movements of bodies”.

Where to place” rather than “What to make

    In 1999, I was interviewed by “Record Collectors”(Music Magazine co.LTD.), a music magazine, for serial publication of “who’s who of record collectors”, as “a collector of failure records”, though I hadn’t been aware that I was such collector. The following is a little quotation from the interview.
    “The other day, I went to Atami hot spring. Desiring to listen to record there, I brought a portable player and looked for messy ryokan(Japanese-style hotel) as possible, and desired to listen to records which go well with the ryokan. I felt everything was in the right place when I listened to the sound of the records seeing sea and hotels of Atami from such environment. Furthermore, there is municipal housing which had been built over 30 years before near my house, and I feel sound of music those days in my head whenever I walk around the housing. For example, supposing It will stand very nice if I listen to Itsutsu no Akai Fusen(A folk music group in seventies) in front of this housing…. I start to be fond of ‘where to listen’ rather than ‘what to listen’.”
    Although it is a statement I spoke ten-odd years before, my thought now is an extension of it. To say in similar way, I start to be fond of “where to place” rather than “what to make”.
    Writing relating with what I have described before, “what to make” is the whole process for “turning music into shape”, include “condensing movement”, adding “essence of noise”, and making the state of “dynamic equilibrium”. On the other hand, “where to place” is the process placing “speaker, and also microphone” which links “relationship between object and ground” into the space where “a dance in stationary time” exists.

    The place where “rhythm of sight” gives “pleasures which involved with movement of bodies rather than brains” is the final conclusion for “where to place”. I would like to make beholders dance their original dance, like “Butoh”, in the space of exhibition where works of wax sculptures are placed. Not only about art, but also about music, about literature, or about any ways of expression, I believe good works make beholders dance. And I believe it is a circulation of  communication.